The response came from middle class professionals and business men and some intellectuals. Meanwhile, the Austrians besieged Venice, which was defended by a volunteer army led by Daniele Manin and Guglielmo Pepewho were forced to surrender on 24 August.
The entire boot of Italy was united under one crown. By keeping the goal in mind, Cavour used international power to achieve his domestic goals. The settlement of —15, had merely restored regional divisions, with the added disadvantage that the decisive victory of Austria over France temporarily hindered Italians in playing off their former oppressors against each other.
Sicily and Naples had once formed part of Spain, and it had always been foreign to the rest of Italy. He allied with France when necessary and with France's key enemy, Prussia, was necessary.
Carrying flags, beating drums, and singing, the participants took the better part of the morning and mid-day to arrive at the castle grounds, where they listened to speeches by nationalist orators from across the conservative to radical political spectrum.
The Union helped to reduce protectionist barriers between the German states, especially improving the transport of raw materials and finished goods, making it both easier to move goods across territorial borders and less costly to buy, transport, and sell raw materials.
In the Constitution of the Roman Republic,  religious freedom was guaranteed by article 7, the independence of the pope as head of the Catholic Church was guaranteed by article 8 of the Principi fondamentali, while the death penalty was abolished by article 5, and free public education was provided by article 8 of the Titolo I.
In Sicily the revolt resulted in the proclamation of the Kingdom of Sicily with Ruggero Settimo as Chairman of the independent state untilwhen the Bourbon army took back full control of the island on 15 May by force.
The Prussian cavalry pursued the defeated French in the evening of 18 June, sealing the allied victory. On 5 July, the Frankfurt Diet voted for an additional 10 articles, which reiterated existing rules on censorship, restricted political organizations, and limited other public activity.
InAlexander von Humboldt argued that national character reflected geographic influence, linking landscape to people. Contemporary, colored wood engraving. Encouraged by the declaration, revolutionaries in the region began to organize.
An important figure of this period was Francesco Melzi d'Erilserving as vice-president of the Napoleonic Italian Republic — and consistent supporter of the Italian unification ideals that would lead to the Italian Risorgimento shortly after his death.
Reaction and dreams —[ edit ] After Napoleon fell, the Congress of Vienna —15 restored the pre-Napoleonic patchwork of independent governments.
Nevertheless, the movement survived and continued to be a source of political turmoil in Italy from until after unification. Over the ensuing thirty years and more other German states joined.
The Erfurt Union was a short-lived attempt at a union of German states under a federation, proposed by the Kingdom of Prussia. Cavour, with the added credibility of representing a monarch, blended perfectly with the political situation in Europe at the time.
Military weakness was glaring, as the small Italian states were completely outmatched by France and Austria. However, the emperor was an absentee German -speaking foreigner who had little concern for the governance of Italy as a state; as a result, Italy gradually developed into a system of city-states.
Menotti was executed, and the idea of a revolution centered in Modena faded. In the spring ofGaribaldi came out of his self-imposed exile to lead a latter day Red Shirt army, known as the Thousand, in southern Italy.
Italians who, like Ugo Foscolo and Gabriele Rossettiharboured patriotic sentiments, were driven into exile. Rail travel changed how cities looked and how people traveled. The Carboneria disowned Napoleon but nevertheless were inspired by the principles of the French Revolution regarding liberty, equality and fraternity.
He opened a newspaper as soon as censorship allowed it: The chief purpose was to defeat tyranny and to establish constitutional government.
The French in fact received Savoy and Nice in Water transportation also improved.
It overpowered guards and liberated hundreds of prisoners. There remained the Roman and Venetian Republics.
The revolts in Modena and the Papal Legations inspired similar activity in the Duchy of Parmawhere the tricolore flag was adopted. The Prussian-led custom union evolved into the Zollverein that included almost all Confederation states except the Austrian Empire.
What challenges did Italians face after unification? regional differences, disputes between the Church and the state, and opposition to a conservative government; the nation also had to deal with social unrest, urbanization, and rapid population growth.
After World War One German had to face serious problems, such as the Treaty of Versailles, dislike of the weak and unpopular Weimar Government, serious economic problems of inflation and unemployment in the early s and again after and the Great Depression.
Liberalism and Nationalism: Italy and Germany STUDY. PLAY. Key Questions. 1. What were the main problems faced by nationalists before ? Why did Prussia and Piedmont lead the unification of Germany and Italy?
3. How did Bismarck achieve the unification of Germany? ~ In order to achieve unity, both countries had. Italian Unification () Summary The movement to unite Italy into one cultural and political entity was known as the Risorgimento (literally, "resurgence").
Third they realized that republicanism was too weak a force. Unification had to be based on a strong monarchy, and in it should investigate the southern regions to better understand the social and political situations there or it should establish jurisdiction and order by using mostly force.
The Unification of Italy The Unified Paragraphs Germany and Italy had to face many problems in order to establish their respective unification. One of Prussias main concern was the fear of .The problems germany and italy had to face in order to establish unification